Oleh : DR. Chairy
Tanggal : 2 November 2010


• Some basic psychological principles that influence people to change their minds or comply with a request:
- Reciprocity
People are more likely to give if they receive
Money in a mail survey questionnaire,…?
- Scarcity
More attractive if less available
“limited edition” items: indent,……….? (artificial scarcity)
- Authority
Who delivers the message (authoritative source)
The New York Times, kompas,……..?
- Consistency
What they say and what they do
Sign a petition supporting the handicapped then double the donation,………?
- Liking
We tend to agree with those we like or admire
Good looking fund raisers get twice as much as others who were not as attractive,……….?
- Consensus
Take into account what others are doing
People are more likely to donate if they first see a list of the names who have already done so,…?

• Decisions, Decisions: Tactical Communication Options
- The Source of the message
Celebrity, career woman, etc
- The message
Negative consequences, comparison, etc
- The media
Print ad, TV, website, etc
- The target market
Status oriented, frustrated, etc


• The message initiator (the source)/the sender
• The medium
• The message
• The target audience (the receivers)
• Feedback – the receiver’s response

Interactive Communications

• The traditional communications model doesn’t tell the whole story…
- Consumers have many choices available and greater control to process messages
- Permission marketing
More successful in persuading the consumers who have agreed to let him or her try
Ex: SMS – REG ……

Update Communications Model

• Consumers are now proactive in communications process: VCRs, DVRs, video-on-demand, pay-per-view TV, Caller ID, Internet


• The source of a message can have a big impact on the likelihood that a message will be accepted
• Expert, celebrity, or “typical consumers”?
- Utilitarian products/high performance risk products: vacuums
- High social risk product: jewelry, furniture
- Everyday product/low risk product; cookies
• Two particularly important source characteristic: credibility & attractiveness

The Source Credibility

• Source’s perceived expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness
• Credibility of informal sources
Strong – have nothing to gain from the transaction; WOM
• Credibility of formal sources
Not-for-profit sources > for-profit sources

• Credibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers
- Endorser credibility are important when message comprehension is low
- Match must exist between product attributes and endorser attributes
- Credibility is higher when endorser’s demographic characteristic are similar to those of target audience
- ………..(the person)?

• Message credibility
- The source
- The reputation of the medium; the retailer
- Consumer’s previous experience with the product

• The sleeper effect
- The process whereby differences in attitude change between positive and negative sources seem to diminish overtime
- Both positive and negative credibility effects tend to disappear after a period of time (six weeks)
- Dissociative cue hypothesis: over the time the source and the message become disassociated in the consumer’s mind; consumers simply forget the source faster than they forget the message

• Source bias
- Knowledge bias: source’s knowledge about a topic is not accurate
- Reporting bias: a source has the required knowledge but his or her willingness to convey it accurately is compromised (Taufik & Yonex)
- Britney Spears drinks coca-cola & “drives Honda City”; Jamie Aditya drinks Teh Botol, etc

• Hype Vs Buzz: The Corporate Paradox
- Hype: corporate propaganda planted by a company to create product sensation; inauthentic
- Buzz: word of mouth that is viewed as authentic and generated by customers
- The corporate paradox: the more involved a company appears to be in the dissemination of news about its products, the less credible it becomes.

The Source Attractiveness

• The source’s perceived social value
• “What is beautiful is good” stereotype : physical attractiveness
• Celebrities as communications sources; match-up hypothesis; the drawbacks of celebrity endorsers
- Madonna & Coca-cola
• Non human endorsers
- Cartoon characters and mascots, virtual models


Words or picture?
• Verbal stimuli affect the utilitarian aspects of a product
- High involvement situation; more frequent exposure
• Visual stimuli affect aesthetic evaluations
• Verbal element are more effective when reinforced by an accompanying picture: increase consumer recall of the verbal information

• Double-edged sword: awareness Vs habituation
• Limiting the amount of exposure per repetition (15 second spots)

One-versus Two-sides messages?
• One sided; stress only favorable informations
• Two sided: both good and bad points are presented
• Friendly Vs unfriendly/critical audience

Draw conclusions?
• Personally relevant message: people will pay attention to it and spontaneously inferences
• Hard to follow arguments or consumer’s motivation to follow is lacking: draw conclusions

Comparative advertising?
• Brand positioning strategis
• Assist recall of the competitor’s brand?
Ex: Clorox wipes Vs Windex Wipes, KIA spectra VS Toyota Corolla

Message framing?
• Positive message framing: stress the benefits to be gained by using the products – low involvement situations; independent self image
• Negative message framing: stress the benefits to be lost by not using the product – high involvement situations; interdependent self-view

Order effects?
• Primacy effect Vs recency effect
• The first, the last or in between?

Emotional Vs Rational Appeals
• The kind of audience (education)
• The degree of involvement

Sexual appeals
• Varies from country to country
• Must be relevant to the product

Humorous appeals
• Low involvement products
• The audience already has positive attitudes toward the brand
• Younger, better-educated, upscale, professional tend to be more receptive

Impact of humor on advertising
• Humor attracts attention
• Humor does not harm comprehension
• Humor is not more effective at increasing persuasion
• Humor doesn’t enhance source credibility
• Humor enhance liking
• Humor that is relevant to the product is superior to humor that is unrelated to the product
• Audience demographic factors affect the response to humourous advertising appeals
• The nature of the product affects the appropriateness of humorous treatment
• Humor is more effective with existing products than with new products
• Humor is more appropriate for low-involvement product and feeling-oriented products than for high-involvement products.

Fear appeals
• Negative relationship between the intensity of fear appeals and their ability to persuade
• More commonly used in social marketing context
• Should be examined carefully before they are used.

Refleksi diri:

Komunikasi yang interaktif menjadi sangat penting dalam dunia bisnis dan periklanan saat ini. Adanya interaksi antara pihak yang mengirimkan pesan dengan penerima pesan membuat proses komunikasi menjadi lancer dan sukses. Komunikasi adalah proses penyampaian pesan dari pengirim (komunikator) kepada penerima (komunikan) melalui suatu medium dan nantinya akan menghasilkan umpan balik (feedback).

Dakam hubungan masyarakat dan periklanan, di dalam periklanan, seorang sarjana komunikasi dapat membantu perusahaan untuk memperkenalkan suatu produk dengan strategi yang tepat. Contoh: Merencanakan, melaksanakan, dan mengevaluasi iklan tertentu. Di dalam hubungan masyarakat, seorang sarjana komunikasi dapat memperkenalkan suatu perusahaan kepada publik dengan cara-cara yang positif, Contoh: strategi humas untuk memperbaiki citra/nama baik Intel Pentium ketika salah satu produknya memiliki kelemahan.

  • Digg
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

1 komentar:

Dwi Pinokio mengatakan...

bagus juga itu

Posting Komentar